In Poland

Mixed Grasslands

The table below shows mixed crops grown in Poland according to climatic conditions.

Legumes Grasses
Warm Areas Humid Areas
Humid Soil Dry Soil Humid Soil Dry Soil
Red Clover Perennial Reygrass Meadow Fescue Timothy Meadow Fescue
White Clover Perennial Reygrass + Meadow Fescue Meadow Fescue + Smooth Bromegrass Timothy + (orchard grass) Meadow Fescue + Smooth Bromegrass
Lucerne Timothy (orchard grass) Tall oat grass (Dactylis)) Timothy (orchard grass) Tall oat grass (Dactylis)

Dairy System and Policy

After Poland joined the European Union, its dairy system changed dramatically. Infrastructures needed to be upgraded to meet the standards, causing some to cease all activity, modernising the farming process for others.
Table below assesses of the situation of Polish farms in 2005 ¹

Number of Farms Less then 5 from 5 to 10 from 10 to 20 from 20 to 50 More then 50 Total
Population 583,000 73,000 50,000 20,000 2,000 727,000
In % 80 % 10 % 6.9 % 2.8 % 0.3 % 100 %
Part of the Herd 33 % 17 % 23 % 18 % 10 % 100 %
Part of the National Collection ~8 % 20 % 33 % 25 % 14 % 100 %
Evolution Trend Strong Decrease Stable Increase Strong Increase /
Characteristics Family farms have on average less than 10 ha of land. They live off of self-consumption and direct sales. These farms have generally been unable or unwilling to adjust to European standards. They often combine dairy production with a calf breeding. With a decrease in collection points, they are gradually disappearing. With an average of 10 to 20 ha of surface, these farms still alternate pasture and forage (6 months each). They generally diversify with other soil-less productions. The number of farms that increased their herd (and thus crossed into the next category) is counterbalanced by the arrival of micro-farms which slightly increased. Generally young farmers, stared up using government aid, their farms are mostly modern and (over-)equipped, mixing traditional and more recent practices. These farms have appeared most often due to a huge modernisation of family farms, employing full-time stuff. They have also benefited from government aid. Mainly businesses that purchased former state farms. They keep mostly keep their dairy cows in stables. These farms are the preferred partners of dairy industries.


¹ based upon study by: Barbin G., You G. (2009). Structures de production et systèmes fourragers laitiers en Pologne. Fourrages, 197, 11-24.

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