Diseases, Parasites and Pests

Diseases of Forage Plants

Mycosis
 …in Grasses
  • Bipolaris: causes helminthosporiosis (rust), leading to the appearance of stains on plants. Related to Drechslera.
  • Cercospora: causes ramulisporosis (rust), affecting mostly bromus. Synonymy of Ramulispora.
  • Cercosporidium: causes scolecotrichosis (rust), or an illness of stripped blotches, particularly on orchard grass and timothy. Synonym of Scolecotrichum and Passalora.
  • Cladosporium: causes heterosporiosis (rust), or eyedblotches, on timothy grass. Synonym of Heterosporium.
  • Claviceps: causes ergot (affecting inflorescence) in cereals (rye, wheat) and forage grasses (fescue, ryegrass, orchard grass, and timothy).
  • Cylindrocarpon: causes weak rooting of seedlings and rot of the base of stalks in its form C. radicicola. It is also a parasite on some cereals.
  • Drechslera: causes helminthosporiosis (rust), leading to appearance of stains on plants. May also cause seedling blight or root diseases (necrosis). Formerly Helminthosporium, related to Bipolaris.
  • Epichloe: causes stromata (on inflorescence) in its form E. typhina.
  • Erysiphe: causes oidium in grasses (rust), in its form E. graminis.
  • Eudarluca: fungal parasite of Puccinia.
  • Gaeumannomyces: causes weak rooting of seedlings and rot of the base of stalks. It is also a parasite on some cereals. Synonym of Ophiobolus.
  • Gerlachia: causes snowmold in its form G. nivalis. Synonym of Fusarium nivale.
  • Helminthosporium: newly Drechslera and Bipolaris.
  • Heterosporium: causes heterosporiosis (rust), or eyed blotches, in timothy grass. Synonym of Cladosporium.
  • Mastigosporium: causes mastigosporiosis (rust), or brown speckling in orchard grass in its form M. rubricosum.
  • Neotyphodium: endophyte mushroom infesting tall fescue and ryegrass.
  • Oidium: causes oidium (rust), in its form O. monilioides.
  • Ophiobolus: causes weak rooting of seedlings and rot of the base of the stalks. It is also a parasite on some cereals. Synonym of Gaeumannomyces.
  • Passalora: causes scolecotrichosis (rust), or an illness of stripped blotches, particularly on orchard grass and timothy. Synonym of Cercosporidium and Scolecotrichum.
  • Puccinia: causes crown rust in ryegrass and fescue, the most serious illness for these plants (P.coronata = P. coronifera). its form P. graminis causes black rust on grass, P.striiformis = P. glumarum yellowrust on grass and yellow rust of orchhardgrass, P. loliina = P. loliicola the brown rust of ryegrass.
  • Pythium: causes weak rooting of seedlings and rot of the base of the stalks. It is also a parasite on some cereals.
  • Ramulispora: causes ramulisporosis (rust), affecting mainly bromus. Synonym of Cercospora.
  • Rhynhosporium: causes rhynchosporiosis in orchard grass (rust), in its form R. orthosporum.
  • Rhizoctonia: causes weak rooting of seedlings and rot of the base of the stalks. It is also a parasite on some cereals.
  • Scolecotrichum: causes scolecotrichosis (rust), or an illness of stripped blotches, particularly on orchard grass and timothy. Synonym of Cercosporidium and Passalora.
  • Selenophoma: causes causes eyed blotches on stalks of orchard grass, in its form S. donacis.
  • Spermospora: causes spermosporosis tall fescue (rust), in its form S. lolii = S. subulata.
  • Sphacelia: Conidial phase of the rye ergot fungus.
  • Typhula: causes snowmold in its form T. incarnata.
  • Uromyces: its form U. dactylidis causes rust in orchardgrass.
  • Ustilago: causes anthracnosis in the inflorescences of bromus in its form U. bullata = U. bromivora.

…in Legumes

  • Ascochyta: its form A. imperfecta is a synonym of Phoma medicaginis.
  • Cercospora: causes cercosporosis of clovers and lucernes (C. zebrina = C. medicaginis).
  • Colletotrichum: causes anthracnosis in lucerne, notably in temperate regions with hot summers.
  • Cymadothea: its form C. trifolii causes illness manifesting as sooty blotches on clove. Synonym of Dothidella trifolii and Mycosphaerella killiani. Its conidial stages are Polythrincium trifolii and Sphaeria trifolii.
  • Dothidella: its form C. trifolii causes illness manifesting as sooty blotches on clover. Synonym of Cymadothea trifolii and Mycosphaerella killiani. Its conidial stages are Polythrincium trifolii and Sphaeria trifolii.
  • Erysiphe: its forms E. trifolii and E. pisi cause oidium in clovers and lucerne, its conidial stage is Oidium erysiphoides.
  • Fusarium: A mold that affects products in silos. May produce fusariotoxins, whose exact effects aren’t yet well understood. Nevertheless, it seems that their presence in certain quantity in the rations leads to lower productivity and affects the health of animals.
  • Gloeosporium: its form G. caulivorum causes clover anthracnosis, also called kabatiellosis. Synonym of Kabatiella caulivora.
  • Kabatiella: its forms K. caulivora causes clover anthracnosis, also called kabatiellosis. Synonym of Gloeosporium caulivorum.
  • Leptosphaerulina: its forms L. briosiana and L. trifolii cause pepper-spot in lucerne and clovers which are noticed by small dots, very easily confusing with Pseudopeziza or other diseases.
  • Leptotrochila: its form L. medicaginis is a synonym for Pseudopeziza jonesii.
  • Mycosphaerella: its form C. trifolii causes an illness manifesting as sooty blotches on clover. Synonym of Dothidella trifolii and Cymadothea trifolii. its conidial stages are Polythrincium trifolii and Sphaeria trifolii.
  • Oidium: conidial stage of oidium in clover and lucerne.
  • Peronospora: its forms P. trifoliorum ( = P. aestivalis = P. viciae) is responsible for mildew in lucerne and clovers.
  • Phoma: its forms P. medicaginis causes black stems disease of lucerne whose crop losses can reach up to 12 %. Its quality is also diminished. Synonym of Ascochyta imperfecta.
  • Pleospora: a form P. herbarum is the sexual stage of stemphyliosis of lucerne and red clover, the asexual stage is ensured by the form of Stemphylium genus.
  • Polythrincium: conidial stage of clover disease involving sooty blotches (cf. Cymadothea, Dothidella, Mycosphaerella.
  • Pseudopeziza: causes a disease of common stains on lucerne, also called Pseudopeziza after the fungus responsible for this disease, which sometimes leads to severe defoliation of plants. A form P. medicaginis attackes lucerne and a P. trifolii clovers..
  • Pythium: leads to seedling blight in Pythium.
  • Rhizoctonia: its form R. violacea leads to Rhizoctonia.
  • Sclerotinia: causes sclerotiniosis, rot at the necks and stalk bases. This is a S. trifoliorum form.
  • Sphaeria: conidial stage of the clover disease involving sooty blotches (see Cymadothea, Dothidella, Mycosphaerella).
  • Sporonema: form S. phacidioides is the asexual stage of Pseudopeziza, which leads to the formation of small black pycnidia on the blotches.
  • Stemphylium: causes stmphyliosis of lucerne and red clover (depending on species). It is the asexual stage. The sexual stage is Pleospora herbarum.
  • Uromyces: numerous rusts, like the rust on cultivated clover. U. striatus is responsible for the common rust of lucerne, U. magnusii for Mediterranean rust of lucerne.
  • Urophlyctis: its form U. alfalfae causes illness which manifests as marbled tumours.
  • Verticillium: causes a vascular disease in lucerne, called verticilliosis. It is more common in northern regions. V. albo-atrum.
Viruses

…in Grasses

…in Legumes

Mycoplasmosis and Bacteriosis

…in Grasses

  • Xanthomonas:

…in Legumes

  • Aphrodes:
  • Corynebacterium:
  • Euscelis:
  • Myzus:
  • Pseudomonas:
  • Trioza:
  • Xanthomonas:

Parasites and Pests

Insects

…in Grasses

  • Aelothrips: useful thrips feeding on the eggs and larvae of phytophagous, as well as plant bugs and other insects.
  • Agriotes: Coleoptera, also known as click beetle, whose larvae attack the belowground parts of crops.
  • Agromyza: leaf-miner fly of the Agromyzidae family (Diptera), harmful especially to wheat and barley depending on the species.
  • Agrophila: a moth found in fescue and agrostis in forms of A. straminella D. and Schuff.
  • Amaurosoma: Diptera around 6 mm long, commonly called Timothy fly, whose larvae attack the ears.
  • Amphimallon: small, not very important beetle.
  • Anaphothrips: dangerous thrips that attack ryegrass, tall oat grass, fox grass, and timothy.
  • Anerastia: Lepidoptera found in Calamagrostis, fescue, and Psammagrostis in its form A. lotella Hb.
  • Anoecia: the underground aphid (Homoptera) that can remain on grass all year long. Its primary host is Cornus.
  • Apamea: meadow pinworm (lepidoptera) whose soil-borne larvae are mostly found in calamagrostide in its form A. sordens Hfn.
  • Aphelia: budworm Lepidoptera, who attacks Timothy in its form A. paleana Hb.
  • Aptinothrips: harmful thrips living at the base of leaves or at the level of flowers.
  • Arthaldeus: cicadella (Hemiptera) ) that can be found in heavily exploited grasslands in form of A. pascuellus Fall.
  • Bibio: Diptera, bibios are harmful pests of Bibionidae family same as Dilophus. Being sensitive to the drought and tolerating moisture, bibions lay up to 1400 eggs that usually hatch in June after 48 days of incubation. There is only one generation per year
  • Calligypona: cicadella (Hemiptera) that can be found in heavily exploited grasslands in form of C. pellucida F.
  • Cerapteryx: Moth (Lepidoptera), its soil-dwelling larvae can develop on grass as C. graminis L. Synonym of Characeas.
  • Cerodontha: diptera from the Agromyzidae family.
  • Cetema: diptera from the Chloropidae family, its form C. elongata mostly attacks Bermudagrass, barley and Bluegrass.
  • Chaetocnema: cereals flea beetle, Coleoptera, about 2.5 mm long, of metallic green colour. It is particularly virulent after droughts, and tackles ryegrass, timothy and orchard grass.
  • Charaeas: Moth (Lepidoptera), its soil-dwelling larvae can develop on grass as C. graminis L. Synonym of Cerapteryx.
  • Chirothrips: harmful thrips living at the base of leaves or at the level of the flowers. its form C. manicatus Hal. is dangerous for all grasses.
  • Chlorops: diptera from the Chloropidae family, its form C. pumilionis attacks barley and wheat.
  • Chrysotenchia: Lepidoptera found in fescue, and agrostis in its form of C. culmella L.
  • Cirphis: moth (Lepidoptera), its soil-dwelling larvae can develop on grass in form of C. unipuncta Haw. Synonym of Mythimna.
  • Cledeobia: Lepidoptera found on lawns, and dry Pyrenean pastures in its form of C. moldavia Esp.
  • Cochliotheca: lepidoptera whose polyphage caterpillar attacks legumes, but sometimes also grasses.
  • Contarinia: Cecidomyiidae ((Diptera) attacks inflorescence, just before blooming.
  • Crepidodera: flea beetle from Halticinae family (like Chaetocnema) which can be found among grasses.
  • Dasineura: Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) attacking inflorescence, shortly after blooming.
  • Deltocephalus: cicadella (Hemiptera) that can be found in heavily exploited grasslands as D. pulicaris Fall.
  • Dilophus: diptera, Dilophus harmful pest of the Bibionidae family, same as Bibio. The larvae cause damage comparable with larvae of Tipula. The incubation period is two times faster than for Bibio and there are two generations per year.
  • Diuraphis: aphid (Homoptera) attacking specifically ryegrass and Bermudagrass
  • Elachiptera: Diptera of the Chloropidae family, which attacks mostly grasslands in its form E. cornuta.
  • Epinaromia: moth (Lepidoptera), its soil-dwelling larvae can develop on grass in its form E. popularis F. Synonym of Tholera.
  • Errastunus: cicadella (Hemiptera) can be found in heavily exploited grasslands as E. ocellanus Fall.
  • Frankliniella: harmful thrips living at the base of leaves or at the level of flowers.
  • Geomyza: Diptera of the Opomyzidae family, same as Opomyza.
  • Hadena: moth (Lepidoptera) soil-borne larvae are mostly found in Bluegrass, Veldetgrass and fescue in its form H. secalis. Synonym of Parastichtis, Mesapamea and Trachea.
  • Haplothrips: harmful thrips living at the base of leaves or at the level of flowers.
  • Holcaphis: aphid (Homoptera) attacking specifically ryegrass and Bermudagrass.
  • Hyalopteroides: aphid (Homoptera) whose form H. humilis transmits streak virus to orchard grass.
  • Hydrellia: leaf-miner (Diptera), 20 to 25 mm in size, flat gray, present across Europe. Larvae (5-6 mm) penetrate tissues creating galleries all the way into the leaf axils.
  • Korscheltellus: lepidoptera whose polyphage caterpillar attacks legumes, but sometimes also grasses.
  • Limothrips: harmful thrips living at the base of leaves or at the level of flowers. A form L. ceralium Hal. is dangerous for all grasses.
  • Liriomyza: diptera form the Agromyzidae family.
  • Mayetiola: Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) that attacks stalks and shoots of leaves at the axillary level.
  • Melolontha: Coleoptera, also called June beetle, it measures 2 to 3 cm, its larvae (white worm) starts to feed on the roots.
  • Meromyza: diptera from the Chloropidae family, whose form M. saltatrix attacks wheat and rye (and grasses in general), M. variegata orchard grass, and M. pratorus the Psammagrostis.
  • Mesapamea: moth (Lepidoptera), soil-borne larvae are mostly found in Bermudagrass, Veldtgrass and fescue, in its form M. secalis L. Synonym of Parastichtis, Hadena and Trachea.
  • Metopolophium: : Aphid (Homoptera) attacking the above ground parts of grasses. A form M. dirhodum affects particularly bluegrass, orchardgrass and ryegrass and can transfer disease.
  • Miana: moth (Lepidoptera) soil-borne larvae are mostly found in Bermudagrass, Veldtgrass and fescue, in its form M. strigilis Cl. Synonym of Oligia.
  • Microsiphum: Aphis (Homoptera) whose form M. avenae can transfer viruses.
  • Mythimna: Moth (Lepidoptera), its soil-dwelling larvae can develop on grass as M. unipuncta Haw. Synonym of Cirphis.
  • Oligia: moth (Lepidoptera) whose soil-borne larvae are mostly found in Bermudagrass in its form O. strigilis L. Synonym of Miana.
  • Opomyza: diptera from the Opomyzidae family, same as Geomyza.
  • Oreopsyche: mountain psyche, lepidoptera, 12 to 18 mm long, 12 to 18 mm, whose caterpillar attacks young grass shoots. It is found mostly in altitude between 700 and 1500 meters.
  • Oscinella: diptera from the Chloropida family, frequently found alongside other Dipteras of the same family. Oscienlla causes extensive damages on the plots of grass. Black, adult size from 1 to 2 mm, oscinella presents three to four generations per year.
  • Oulema: cereal leaf beetle, 4 to 5 mm long beetle, whose larvae attack cereal crops and grasses (orchard grass, timothy, rye-grass…).
  • Parastichtis: moth of Noctuidae family (Lepidoptera) soil-borne larvae are mostly found in Bermudagrass, Veldtgrass and fescue, in its form P. secalis L. Synonym of Msapamea, Hadena and Trachea.
  • Phytomyza: diptera form the Agromyzidae family.
  • Pseudonapomyza: diptera form the Agromyzidae family.
  • Rhopalosiphum: Aphid (Homoptera) attacking the above the ground parts of grasses. A form R. padi attacks particularly ryegrass and a meadow fescue. It can transmit certain viruses to plants.
  • Sipha: Aphid (Homoptera) attacks the above the ground parts of grasses.
  • Sitobion: Aphid (Homoptera) attacks the above the ground parts of grasses. Its form S. avenae enjoys orchard grass and ryegrass.
  • Sitodiplosis: Cecidomyiidae (diptera) attacs inflorescence.
  • Stenodiplosis:Cecidomyiidae (diptera).
  • Stenothrips: harmful thrips living at the base of the leaf or at the level of the flower.
  • Strephanus: cicadella (Hemiptera) that can be found in heavily exploited grasslands in its form S. sortidus Zett.
  • Tetraneura: the underground aphid (Homoptera) that can remain on grass all year long. Its primary host is the elm.
  • Tholera: Moth (Lepidoptera), its soil-dwelling larvae can develop on grass as T. decimalis Poda. Synonym of Epinaromia.
  • Tipula: Diptera, commonly known as crane fly or a cousin in our counties, harmless as adults, but can cause significant damage at the larval stage. This is particularly the case for species T. paludosa and T. oleracea.
  • Trachea: moth (Lepidoptera) whose soil-borne larvae are mostly found in Bermudagrass, Veldtgrass and fescue, in its form T. secalis L. Synonym of Parastichtis, Hadena and Mesapamea.
  • Trichopalpus: Diptera that can be distinguished from Amaurosoma by the presence of two sternopleural bristles (instead of three).

…in Legumes

  • Acyrthosiphon: a pea aphid (A. pisum), is the most abundant Homoptera in legumes. Its eggs hatch in early February – March.
  • Adelphocoris: plant bugs (Heteroptera) particularly harmful to lucerne and clover causing growth arrest, specially the (A.lineolatus).
  • Agromyza: Agromyzidae (diptera) whose larvae dig large galleries harmful to cucerne (A. frontella, A. nana) and clovers (A. nana).
  • Aphidius: Hymenoptera, a parasite of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum).
  • Aphrodes: cicadella (homoptera) causing clover phyllody (A. bicinctus).
  • Apion: weevils (Coleoptera), whose endophyte larvae attack grains, especially red clover and lucerne (A. pisi L.).
  • Asphondylia: diptera whose form A. miki, the Cecidomyiidae of pods, is found in lucerne fields.
  • Brachycaudus: A yellowish aphid (Homoptera ) medium size, whose form B. helichrysi can be found on inflorescence of clovers.
  • Bruchidius: beetle found in clover or in trefoil, depending on the species. One generation per year, its impact is very low, there is no organised protection against its presence in plots or silos. Seminivorous, the larva is satisfied with only one grain during its development.
  • Bruchophagus: small chalcid whose larvae develop on seeds of lucerne (B. roddi), clover (B. gibbus), or trefoil (B. kolobovae).
  • Bruchus: beetle (coleoptera), seminivorous, present but causing minimal damage to vetch crops. Only one generation per year.
  • Colaspidema: Colaspidema barbarum, is the beetle folivore from the Chrysomelidae family; found specifically on lucerne. The larvae are black and grow on leaves (ectophyte), feeding on them and leaving only the central ribs.
  • Contarinia: diptera whose form C. medicaginis, (flower Cecidomyiidae) attackes lucerne fields, C. loti trefoils and C. onobrychidis sainfoin.
  • Cydia: Lepidoptera whose seminivorous caterpillar attacks in particular lucerne seeds. Synonym of Laspeyresia.
  • Dasineura: diptera whose form D. ignorata, the seedlings Cecidomyiidae, is present in lucerne, and D. leguminicola in clover.
  • Dipsosphecia: Sesia ((lepidoptera) whose endophyte larvae are very damaging to sainfoin. The larvae develop at the soil level and in roots. Egg laying is spread through two months, complicating the fight against this parasite.
  • Empoasca: Cicadelle (Homoptera) whose form E. pteridis is frequently found in legumes.
  • Eurytoma: small chalcid whose larvae develop on the seeds of sainfoin (E. onobrychidis).
  • Euscelis: cicadella (homoptera) causing clover phyllody (E. plebejus).
  • Frankliniella: polyphage thrips of secondary importance whose form F. intonsa can be found on all legumes.
  • Grapholita: lepidoptera whose seminivorous caterpillar, attacking in particular clover seeds.
  • Haplothrips: polyphage thrips of secondary importance whose form H. niger is found on clover.
  • Hylastinus: scolyte (coleopter), with endophyte larva, adult size of 2 mm, present in the clover crops, near the soil level of the plants, digging many galleries.
  • Hypera: phytonome weevil (beetle) found in lucerne (H. variabilis) and clover (H. nigrirostris). The larvae eat leaf blades, they are ectophyt.
  • Hypsopygia: bee moth (Lepidoptera) particularly present in clover crops (H. costalis).
  • Jaapiella: leaf Cecidomyiidae (diptera) found mostly in lucerne fields (J. medicaginis).
  • Kakothrips: thrips polyphage of secondary importance whose form K. robustus is harmful for sainfoin and peas.
  • Laspeyresia: lepidoptera whose seminivorous caterpillar attacks in particular lucerne seeds. Synonym of Cydia.
  • Liriomyza: Agromyzidae (diptera) whose larvae dig large galleries damaging to vetches (L. congesta).
  • Lygus: plant bug (Heteroptera) particularly harmful to Lucerne and clover, causing growth arrest specially the (L. rugulipennis, L. pratensis).
  • Megoura: aphid (Homoptera) of large size, found in vetch (M. viciae).
  • Miccotrogus: weevil (beetle) related to Tychius, found in lucerne and clovers (M. picirostris).
  • Nearctaphis: medium sized yellowish aphid (Homoptera ) whose form N. bakeri is found on trefoil inflorescence.
  • Odontothrips: thrips of secondary importance whose form O. confusus can be found in lucern crops and O. loti in trefoil.
  • Otiorhynchus: weevil (beetle) rarely seen in last few years. Between 10 and 12 mm in length, it is mostly present in lucerne and clover, feeding on their leaves. The larvae are underground.
  • Philaenus: Froghopper (homoptera) whose larvae of P. spumarium species, spittlebugs, find shelter in a white mucus easy to recognise, sucking the sap in the spring while injecting a mucus-filled bubbles.
  • Phytomyza: Agromyzidae (diptera) whose larvae dig large galleries damaging to all legumes (P. horticola).
  • Semiothisa: lepidoptera, its caterpillar defoliates plants and can be found in plots of lucerne (S. clathrata). It has several generations per year, whose presence may be limited by an early mowing.
  • Shenoptera: coleoptera with endophyte larvae. It is particularly detrimental for cultures of sainfoin in Mediterranean area.
  • Sitona: sitona, Weevil, from the family of Curculionidae (Coloptera), causing serious damage to lucerne plots. Easily recognisable, by its semicircular bites on the edge of leaf blades. The larvae are ectophytes,
  • Sminthurus: small springtail (2 mm adult) and of secondary importance. its form S. viridis is found in lucerne and clover.
  • Subcoccinella: ladybug of legumes (Coloptera), exclusively phytophagous. Feeds on lucerne and clover. Found mostly in Central Europe. The larvae are ectophytes.
  • Terioaphis: aphid (Homoptera) medium-sized and fairly polyphagous.
  • Thrips: polyphagous thrips of secondary importance whose form T. flavus is found in lucernes.
  • Tychius: seminivore weevil (beetle) found in Lucerne and clover, who can damage 20% of a crop (at the seed production level).

Nematodes

 …in Grasses

Generally, presence of nematodes in grass plots leads to the observation of areas with weak, dried out plants, eventually even in the process of decay. Ryegrass is a good host for these parasites.

  • Criconemoides: an ectoparasitic nematode which is harmful but not well-known.
  • Heterodera: cystic, nematodes, whose larvae transform after three stages into mobile males, or females hanging on roots. After fertilisation, females turn into cysts to protect their eggs.
  • Longidorus: an ectoparasitic nematode which is harmful but not well-known.
  • Meloidogyne: it develops inside until the stage of an adult female. The laid larvae can migrate toward other roots. It has two generations per year. M. naasi is present mainly in the north-eastern area, infesting ryegrass and Meadow Fescue.
  • Paratylenchus: an ectoparasitic nematode which is harmful but not well-known.
  • Pratylenchus: filiform, it has several generations per year and lives either in the roots or in the soil. It multiplies on all grasses. We have recorded five species: P. neglectus, P. crenatus, P. thornei, P. fallax, and P. penetrans.
  • Tylenchorhynchus: an ectoparasitic nematode which is harmful but not well-known.

…in Legumes

  • Criconemella: an ectoparasitic nematode that lives in the soil and feeds directly on roots. It promotes infection by other pathogens.
  • Ditylenchus: stems nematode. Known in France for over a century, this parasite causes extensive damage in the fields of legumes.
  • Helicotylenchus: an ectoparasitic nematode that lives in the soil and feeds directly on roots. It promotes infection by other pathogens.
  • Heterodera: root nematode, its form H. trifolii is found in white and red clover
  • Meloidogyne: root nematode, this parasite is responsible for a decline in forage production. Its presence in this plot in some cases leads to the infection of plants by the fungus Fusarium.
  • Pratylenchus: root nematode, with four harmful species of which, P. penetrans, is the most dangerous.
  • Tylenchorhynchus: an ectoparasitic nematode that lives in the soil and feeds directly on roots. It promotes infection by other pathogens.

…in Livestock

 Strongles
  • Ostertagia ostertagi: causes strongylosis of the abomasum (in ruminants). Semi-direct homoxenous cycle.
  • Dictyocaulus viviparus: cause a respiratory broncho-pneumonia. Semi-direct homoxenous cycle.

Rodents and the Others

 Rodents
  • Arvicola: terrestrial vole attacks belowground parts of the plant. Bigger than Microtus, from 12 to 16 cm, it rejects the soil from drilling galleries on the surface.
  • Microtus arvalis: presence of common vole, with a very large geographical distribution, is likely to be accompanied by colossal damage to crops.
  • Pitymys: also called the Mediterranean pine vole, it is found in Mediterranean regions, especially in lucerne crops.
Slugs

Due to the fact that they are principally nocturnal, slugs are ultimately little known. Their harmfulness is variable, as are the means put in place to fight them and to limit the damage.

  • Agriolimax: from beige to brown, with a few thick spots. Adult measures from 4 to 5 cm. Secreting whitish mucus when they are disturbed, it is easy to follow their trace. They are buried deep in the soil during the day.
  • Arion: smaller than Agrolimax (3 cm), they are black with white (or yellowish-orange) belly. They move less and remain more on the surface.
  • Milax: genus found in formss M. gracilis, M. sowerbyi Fer., M. budapestensis Hazay.
Grasshoppers

The presence of grasshoppers in grasslands has a double influence: we can observe a direct reduction of production (particularly for grass crops) insofar as they feed on plants, and decreased appetite in animals because of their deposited excrements.

  • Calliptamus: 2 to 4 cm long, the Italian cricket (Calliptamus italicus L.) proliferates in areas (especially in the South) after one hot and dry year. Their eggs contained in on ootheca are buried in the ground. Other species are also found in the north and east areas of the country.
  • Chlorthippus: in form of C. parallelus Azam.
  • Mecostethus: in form of M. grossus L.
  • Parapleurus: in form of P. alliaceus Germar.

Parasitic plants

  • Cuscuta:

Weeds

  • Rumex obtusifolius: mostly found in Central and Western Europe (including United Kingdom), they are strong and highly adaptable. Rumex is one of the most prevalent weeds in the world.

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