Timothy-Grass

Phleum pratense

   

Description

Morphology

Large perennial grass (80-140 cm), with tufted strain, forming little loose tussocks. Stack is large, straight, smooth, rounded into bulbous base. The long leaves (30-50 cm) are quite broad, flat and smooth, with rolled leaves, limbs are often twisted and carry an average fleshy ligule. Inflorescence is in the form of spikelets, cylindrical and dense panicles.
Grains are coated in lemma, TKW is from 0.4 to 0.5 G. This is a cross-pollinating species, hexaploid at 2n=42.

Geography

Originally found in most of Europe, temperate Asia, and North Africa, Timothy was then introduced to North and South America and Australia. In Morocco, it is found up to an altitude of 2.500-3.500 meters.
It is cultivated mainly in Scandinavia and North America, although well appreciated in France, Germany, Hungary, etc.

Culture

 Chemical Composition
In % Water Nitrogen Fat Soluble carbohydrates Fibrous carbohydrates Ashes
Forage: green 80 2.3 0.4 11.0 5.0 1.3
Forage: hay 20 9.0 1.7 44.0 20.1 5.2
Usage

Timothy is recommended for the creation of meadows, particularly for hay. Not very persistent, it must be replaced every two or three years.

Techniques

Timothy grows particularly well in cool and humid areas. If it can withstand harsh winter without damage, it is requires light watering before summer drought. It grows mainly in autumn and winter.

Seedlings Period Spacing (of rows) Depth Amount sown
In rows After first autumn rains 50-70 cm (40-60 dibbling) 1-1,5 cm 8-12 kg/ha

Having a slow lift, this species should be mown shortly after the appearance of panicles. Mown early, it can still produce one or two growths.

In q/ha In green In hay In grain
Yield 200-400 50-100 3-7

Agronomic characteristics

Benefits
  • Early star at the end of winter
  • Productivity in spring and late autumn
  • Resistance to excess water
  • Adaptation to cold regions and acidic soils
  • Very late heading conferring good flexibility for farming
  • Good nutritional value
Limitations
  • Slow raising and set up
  • Low summer growth
  • Sensitivity to drought

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